Clinical Endpoints in Trials of Chemoradiation for Patients With Anal Cancer
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We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. Incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma ASCC is increasing, with curative chemoradiotherapy CRT as the primary treatment of non-metastatic disease. A significant proportion of patients have locoregional treatment failure LRF , but distant relapse is uncommon.
This Review examines the reporting of endpoints in randomised controlled trials RCTs of radical chemoradiation for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. The types, frequency, and definitions of clinical primary and secondary endpoints, and patient-reported outcome measures, reported in the methods and results sections of papers and protocols, if available were examined. Only six published RCTs comprising patients were identified. Primary outcome measures varied across the trials analysed: two used disease-free survival, one used progression-free survival, two used local failure, and one used colostomy-free survival.
An anal fissure is a break or tear in the skin of the anal canal. Anal fissures may be noticed by bright red anal bleeding on toilet paper and undergarments, or sometimes in the toilet. If acute they are painful after defecation,  but with chronic fissures, pain intensity often reduces. Anal fissures usually extend from the anal opening and are usually located posteriorly in the midline, probably because of the relatively unsupported nature and poor perfusion of the anal wall in that location. Fissure depth may be superficial or sometimes down to the underlying sphincter muscle.